The Village of Endicott is the westernmost of the Triple Cities along the Susquehanna River. It began as two villages, which grew rapidly toward one another. Union Village, near the intersection of Rt. 26 and Rt. 17C, was incorporated in 1892. The Village of Endicott, along Washington Avenue and North Street, was incorporated in 1906. In 1921, the two villages merged into the present Village of Endicott.
Endicott is home to IBM’s Plant #1, a large Art-Deco factory complex north of the business district. Its predecessor, International Time Recorder Company, moved to Endicott in 1907, changing its name to International Business Machines in 1924. Endicott’s rapid early twentieth century growth is in large part due to waves of immigrants arriving to work in local industries, particularly Endicott-Johnson. Endicott-Johnson expanded to Endicott in the early twentieth century, locating tanneries to the village of Endicott in the early 1900s and later shoe making factories and offices along North Street, adjacent to the IBM complex. The company’s reform-minded “Square Deal” labor policies included providing community amenities, health care, a 40-hour work week, and company-sponsored housing in both villages, much of which is evident today. Endicott’s ethnic diversity can be seen in its Eastern Orthodox gold-dome churches and historically immigrant neighborhoods like Little Italy.
Endicott is internationally significant both as a factory town related to Endicott-Johnson and as the home of IBM. The Village houses one of two Susquehanna Heritage Area Visitor Centers, which is a significant community facility with excellent exhibits. The IBM History and Heritage Center is a 5,000 square foot facility that displays a century of information technology from late nineteenth century time clocks to mainframes with high density electronic circuitry. However, this facility is only open to the public by appointment and advance reservation. The Center for Technology and Innovation offers guided tours upon request. The Olde Village of Union Historical Society Museum is also located in Endicott. Endicott’s downtown commercial district is located along Washington Avenue.